Since I started DNA research in scope of my genealogical research, I joined Family Tree DNA service [USA], and this post is dedicated to to Y-DNA testing. I do updates of this blog post, as soon as I receive/discover something new and relevant.
First of all I ordered Y-DNA37 only (Jun-2014). It gave me I-P37 as a main predictable haplogroup (but in red color, which was prediction). Later I ordered Y-DNA-67 (Oct-2014) test for more detailed data (more markers – more accurate data, and more accurate matches research). Then I requested a few SNPs, and here are all my results:
- CTS10228+ (Dec-2014) [Nov-2016: C+, V4023 C+]
- A2512 C- [Nov-2016]
- S17250– (Jul-2014) [Nov-2016: YP204 G-, V3022 G-]
- Z17855– (Apr-2015) [Nov-2016: G-]
- Y4460+ (Feb-2015) [Nov-2016: A+]
Long story short: I’m I2a1b2a1b (based on positive I-Y4460). Neither FTDNA nor YSEQ have new terminal SNP to continue my research (Feb-2017).
UPD (May-28-2016) – Now, confirmed haplogroup for me is child entry I-Y4460.
Now, let’s dive into details 🙂
You can find basic understanding DNA research, in my previous post “R1a vs. I2a [Y-DNA]“. In fact it’s about person belonging to haplogroup, from geographic point of view. But this article si about more detailed Y-DNA research closer to my own haplogroup.
I-P37 haplogroup spread (migration).
The key haplogroup is I-P37, and this is main flow chart/diagram by Ken Nordtvedt created in 2013 and shows how I-haplogroup people migrated.
We can see, that there were a few directions in migration process.
Blog [i2aproject] divide haplogroup I2a1 aka I-P37 into smaller sub-groups/subclades based on ethnographic meaning. The relationships of the major branches of I-P37.2 are now known. These branches and their nicknames:
- M26 (Sardinian)
- M423 (Dinaric, Disles, Isles)
- L1286 (Alpine) and
- L233 (Western)
- L880 (Northern France)
- L1294 (France)
Here is 2010 year map, how this all visualized.
Haplogroup Aliases clarification
There are many aliases for dozen of SNPs. Despite the fact that these aliases are complicated to remember, and had been changing all the time in past, I really like hierarchy, which classify data in more consistent way. This list is about to understand basic aliasing, with some variations.
- I2a1b – according Ukrainian DNA group on FTDNA, in colorized list. Administrator – Volodymyr Bodnar.
- I2a1b – according YFull tree.
- I2a1b2a1 – according ISOGG-2014, ISOGG-2015 and ISOGG-2016.
- I2a1b2a1 – according Swedish haplogroup database [2015 year update]
- I2a1b2a1 defines the last group (approved by SNP CTS10228) in chain of SNPs.
- I2a1b3 (L621/S392) according wiki page for I-M170
- I2c1b1a1 – on the same FTDNA group, but on SNP page. Bernie Cullen answers, that it’s computer error in coding of aliases. I2a1b the most accurate to describe haplogroup subclade.
- I2a2 ‘Dinaric’ – according I2a Haplogroup on FTDNA colorized list. Administrator – Bernie Cullen and Zdenko Markovic.
Swedish haplogroup database is the only one, which has always information up to date. Based on this resources and many other I decided to recollect info in summarized form of combined names (alias + SNP name + year/age based on 23andme info, YFULL, FTDNA, YSEQ and some short details from Wikipedia):
|IJ||M429||30.5-46.2kya||Ancestral HGs IJ-M429* probably would have entered Europe through the Balkan track sometime before the LGM. They then subsequently split into Hg J and Hg I in Middle East and Europe in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern.|
|I||M170+||15.3-30.0 kya||Predominantly a European haplogroup and it is considered as the only native European Haplogroup. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations with peaks in Northern and South-Eastern Europe. Aurignacian culture (32–26 ka).|
|I2||M438+||28kya||Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) which lasted from 26.5 ka to 19 or 20 ka.
A new culture known as the Gravettian (28–22 ka). moved westward across the continent. The Gravettian people introduced new stone tool technology
|I2a||L460+||11kya||Concentrated in eastern Europe and western Russia, reaching levels of 40% in Bosnia and 30% in Croatia. Balkans.|
|I2a1||P37+||10.7±4.8kya||Two examples of I2a1 have been found in the DNA of Neolithic farmers. They were among the burials in the Cave of Treilles in Aveyron, in the South of France. The Treilles culture of c. 3000 BC is the very last phase of the Neolithic in the region before the arrival of copper-workers and the Bell Beaker culture.|
|I2a1b||M423+||8.8±3.6kya|| Dinaric, Disles, Isles.
The most frequent in Central and Eastern European populations, reaching its peak in the Western Balkans, most notably in Dalmatia (50-60%) and Bosnia-Herzegovina (up to 71%, avg. 40-50%). A greater variance of this group has been found in Ireland and Great Britain, but overall frequency is very low (2-3%). I-M423 is virtually absent in Fennoscandia, Western and Southwestern Europe (Wikipedia)
formed 11300, TMRCA 6500
|The high concentration of I2a1b-L621 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (4800-3000 BCE) before it was swallowed by the Indo-European Corded Ware culture.
Ancient Dacians, Thracians, Illyrians
|I2a1b2a||CTS4002, Y3110+,||formed 6500, TMRCA 5500||Not tested, but 99.99% sure, that I positive. Because it’s in between.|
|formed 5500, TMRCA 2200||My officially assigned SNP by FTDNA. It describes many Dinaric DNA bearers. During 2015 year it’s expanded into a few different branches.
Source 1 – BalticSeaFTDNAGroup:
|I2a1b2a1a||S17250–||TMRCA 2100||Negative for me. Current locations of tested people: BLR/UKR/CZE.
Source 1 – BalticSeaFTDNAGroup:
|I2a1b2a1b||Y4460+||TMRCA 2200||Age: 1991 ybp. Positive for me.
Source 1 – BalticSeaFTDNAGroup:
|I2a1b2a1b1||Y3118–||TMRCA 2200||Negative for me. YFULL reported locations of tested people: USA/POL/FIN|
|I2a1b2a1b2a?||Y16810?||TMRCA 1800||Age: 1815 ybp. Not tested, but probably negative.
YFULL reported locations: UKR, LVA.
|I2a1b2a1b2?||A6105- A6106-|| TMRCA
|Age formula the has similar year range/deviation as for Y16810.|
|I2a1b2a1b3?||S8201–||TMRCA 1450||Age: 1443 ybp. Negative for me. YFULL reported locations: UKR, BLR.|
|TMRCA 1450||Age: 1894 ybp. YFULL reported locations: HUN, RU. Negative for me.|
|I2a1b2a1c||Z17855–||TMRCA 1650||Negative for me. YFULL reported locations of tested people: UKR. Based on map by Krzysztow most of tested people are from Balkan countires (Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, Bosnia, Croatia).|
|I2a1b2a1d||Y2512/A2512||TMRCA 2100||Not tested. But 99% that is negative. Current locations of tested people: UKR+BLR|
This is screenshot from FTDNA site, data is not changed very frequently, which is bad.
Green color means that haplogroup I-CTS10228 is confirmed (Since this SNP has many people tested/confirmed haplogroup named by name of main SNP). Previously I have I-P37 as only predicted haplogroup, but in red color. Now it’s 100% I-P37, because it’s ancestor for I-CTS10228.
I am Y4460+ since Feb-2015, but only May-28-2016, FTDNA updated my confirmed haplogroup:
Nov-2016: FTNDA still doesn’t give ability to order A6105 or A6106, so I ordered it via YSEQ (see below).
Besides FTDNA service, many other services keep up to date haplogroups information.
On closer level of subclades, we can narrow areas, and analyze SNPs only. Here is time-related graph by Bernie Cullen in 2010 year. Here is Oct-2016 snapshot of haplogroup SNPs tree by Eupedia (they do not update frequently):
- Y4460 (Jun-2015), Y4460 (Aug-2015), Y4460 (Oct-22-2015), Y4460 (Dec-07-2015), Y4460 (Jan-30-2016), Y4460 (Nov-19-2016), (Y-4460 Feb-16-2017), (Y-4460 Apr-2017), (Y-4460 May-2017)
- Here is update for Jun-2017:
- Green ellipse is about my tested markers, where I am positive.
- Red – negative.
- Grey dotted circled is NOT YET tested by me, but maybe later I will order the test
- Grey but solid – it’s very probable I’m negative to that marker/SNP.
Here is current chain of SNPs/haplogroups which I do positively belong to:
M429 -> M170 -> M438-> L460 -> P37 -> M423 -> L621 -> CTS4002 -> CTS10228 -> Y4460 -> (?).
This is full path, based on YFULL (I-L621).
To get more vision about structure of close to me SNPs, I extracted piece of SNP chart/structure from i2haplogroup blog. Geneticists from that blog work mainly with FTDNA data, but they also keep watching on YFULL and YSEQ. Below is the list of updates following i2a blog:
- L621 updates: Dec-04-2014, Jan-2015, Apr-2015, Aug-2015, Nov-2015, May-03-2016, My Y4460 cut.png, Aug-28-2016, Dec-31-2016, Feb-19-2017, May-2017.
- L621 latest UPDATE (Jun-2017):
Info from i2aProject blog about colors:
light-green is about Dinaric-North cluster, brown color is a about Jewish cluster. light-violet is Mediterranean (Greek) cluster. On bigger format there is also Dinaric-South colored cluster, which has now dedicated SNP – PH908 (sub to S17250).
Below is a M423 Panel SNPs review only those which are related to me with exact my results. Such hierarchy representation is much better than pure table (IMHO). But this tree doesn’t show all SNPs, but still:
First, I ordered A6105 and it turned out as C- (negative for me). It’s how YSEQ results looked at that time. Then I ordered M423 panel to see A-6106 (C-) and other SNPs. And in May-2017 I ordered SK1241 (C-). YSEQ answered me (Feb-2017):
“Your final branch is I2-Y4460*
All downstream branches have been confirmed ancestral (=negative).”
Also SK1242 G-.
Here is my full results page but a bit “beautified” and “historified” by me using Spreadsheet:
L621 Google Map
STR => Dinaric race
First of all, here is good example of explanation what is SNP and what is STR, and why we need both yet.
This data set is very important – it’s main set of my Y Chromosome data, transformed in more human-readable format:
There are a few online services, where you cane use this names and numbers and analyze your Y-Chromosome.
Based on Y-DNA-67-markers-data-set, Haplogroup predictor update information about more precisely belonging to Dinaric:
- I-M423-Din-N =>73% (Dinaric, North)
- I-M423-Din-S =>27% (Dinaric, South)
I know many new discoveries were introduced by Bernie Cullen in I2 haplogroup public email. To get more clarity here is part of public accessible email correspondence between Bernie Cullen, Kennet Nordtvedt and whole I2 Haplogroup community.
- Feb-2014. “We knew that CT10228 and CTS5966 exactly defined the big Eastern European branch of I–P37. But we still didn’t know any SNPs that divided this big and important group. The only division known was Ken Nordvedt’s, based on two STR values”:
Dinaric-North has DYS448=20 and DYS449=32 or similar, and is usually found in northeast Europe.
Dinaric-South has DYS448=19 and DYS449=30 or similar, and is usually found in southeast Europe.
The vast majority of I-L621 men belong to a group called Dinaric, which has distinctive STR markers (especially DYS565=9). Dinaric is very common in Eastern Europe and present at much lower levels in Western Europe.
So, as I see, I have DYS448=19 but DYS449=32, which doesn’t fit above to above !!!
- May-2014. Initial Bernie Cullen email.
Around 12 Dinarics have tested S17250 as part of Big Y or at YSEQ. All 5 Dinaric-South men were S17250+, and some Dinaric-North men were S17250+ and other Dinaric-North men were S17250-. The division between Dinaric-South and Dinaric-North is based on two STR markers and this division is not always a perfect reflection of genetic history.
- May-2014. Lawrence Mayka replying to Bernie Cullen email.
So far, most or all of those who are negative for S17250 have patrilineage originating near the Carpathians, particularly southeastern Poland and extreme western Ukraine. That pattern may change with more sampling, of course.
- Nov-2014. by Bernie Cullen:
— Dinarics are derived for M423 and equivalents, L621 and equivalents, CTS10936 and equivalents, and CTS10228 (which is equivalent to CTS5966)
— L147.2 is equivalent to CTS10936 and CTS10228
— as far as I can tell, the Big Y result also confirm that L69.2 is equivalent to L621
— Dinarics all match Ken Nortvedt’s Dinaric modal STR haplotype, and they have DYS565=9; but Disles, I-L161, and the I-CTS595 groups all have DYS565=11
–P41.2/M359.2 is very rare and none of these Big Y testes are derived.
- Nov-2014. A few quotes listed below:
The I-CTS10228 “Dinaric” haplogroup is very large and many new SNPs and branches have been discovered in the past 12 months.
I-CTS10228 “Dinaric” is a young group and its members share a lot of history. Older groups like I-M26 and I-L161 are more like collections of ancient lineages that have been living in the same part of the world for many thousands of years, and I think it’s somewhat arbitrary to talk aboutI-M26 vs. a more specific group like I-L160 or a more general group likeI-CTS595. it’s just that I-M26 was discovered first. But the I-CTS10228 level looks like exactly the right level to talk about when you want to talk about the lineage of I-P37 which rapidly expanded in Eastern Europe in the last 2,000+ years.
There are three branches known below CTS10228:
I-S17250 which is the largest branch and includes all Dinaric-S people who have done tests. It also includes many Dinaric-N people. People belonging to this group are from all over: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Czech
Republic, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Croatia and probably many other countries.There are many known subbranches of I-S17250, and many of the Dinaric-S people belong to the I-Z16983/A356 branch.
I-Y4460 is less common, and so far its members have ancestry from NE Europe: Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Finland. We know some subbranches ofI-Y4460.
I-Z17855 which as far as I know includes one man with ancestry from Greece and one with ancestry from Ukraine.
- May-2015. And besides well known BigY test, YSEQ company/service have recent update by introducing M423 panel. Colors don’t reflect any my tests. It’s just for visualization.
- Y3110 is on the same level as CTS10936.
- Y3111 is on the same level as CTS10228 and CTS5966.
- Jun-24-2015. I2-L621 community increases number of SNPs, which were undefined before. Which is very good. Here is quote of Zdenko Markovic from my emailing with him:
There is a I-L621 draft tree from April 2015 and newly discovered branches below I-CTS10228. It seems that STR based Dinaric Southerns belong to the cluster below S17250. There are also some Din-N subbranches below S17250. There is no SNP which unify Din-S. Instead, there is starlike expansion of Din-S cluster. There is similar situation in some other haplogroups which experienced a sudden and rapid expansion.
- Aug-2015. According the latest update, there is new branch I-Y2512 according i2a blog or A2512 in YSEQ naming:
Almost everyone in I-CTS10228 belongs to one of three branches: I-S17250, I-Y4460 or I-Z17855. But there are a few people who are CTS10228+ and S17250- Y4460- Z17855-.
We now know that there is a fourth branch called I-Y2512. Two people have done Big Ys which show that they belong to this group: kit 4605 from the “Jewish Dinaric” cluster, and kit N80837 who has Greek ancestry and is part of the Mediterranean Dinaric cluster. Kit 54093 has also received Y2512+ results from YSeq, he is also part of the Mediterranean Dinaric cluster and more specifically the New Mexico Dinaric cluster. Finally there is an anonymous sample (GS000018440-DID) from Chuvashia that was sequenced by the Estonian Biocentre and found to belong to I-Y2512.
- Aug-28-2015 by Bernie Cullen:
Again, I am not the best person to answer these kinds of questions. But I think all of I-CTS10228 “Dinaric” was part of the Slavic expansion, and maybe some people think it was also part of some slightly earlier expansions. I-Z16971 group shows this: we have members from Russia, Serbia, Czech Rep. Slovakia, Ukraine, Poland, North Caucuses. So probably I-Z16971’s paternal ancestors came to Germany from the east. For the eastern parts of Germany, maybe in some cases the I-CTS10228 people were already living in regions that later became Germanized. And in other cases I-CTS10228 people moved west into German speaking regions.
- Dec-10-2015. Quote from Zdenko Markovic as a reply to my email:
… there are other project members who have I-Y4460* result. Some of them have or are expecting Big Y results. Maybe we find another branch, maybe not. FTDNA does not offer A6105, Y8942 SNP tests. A6105 is available at YSeq.net. I2a-A6105 group has a few characteristic STR values which you do not have. It is better to wait until eventually new branches below Y4460 are found.
- Feb-2016 update about top-level race, ethnographic related subclades:
What is I-S21825? It is all of I-P37 except I-M26 and I-M423. That means I-S21825 includes the rare I-L233 “Western” branch and the much rarer I-Y11949 “Alpine”, I-L1294 “France”, and I-L880 “Northern France” branches. P37, M26, S21825, M423, L621 and L161 each have dozens of equivalent SNPs, but CTS595 is the only known SNP at its level. Therefore I-P37 split into three branches almost simultaneously (into the I-M26, I-S21825 and I-M423 branches).
- Feb-24-2016. I found interesting web site “MorleyDNA.com Y-SNP Subclade Predictor (beta since 2013)”, where I can provide list of SNPs and see predicted haplogroup. Format: “CTS10228+, Y4460+, S8201-, Y3118-, Z17855-, S17250-“. And here is how page result looks here.
- Mar-11-2016. YSEQ released new version o I2-M423 panel (set of SNPs which are closely related. Not all listed on below images !!!). Here is snapshot of Mar-2016 set of SNPs.
- Mar-2016 by Zdenko Markovic as a reply on my email/question “What exactly STR characteristics?And are those differences applied to A6106 also? If not, does/would it make sense to order A6106 in future?”:
First four persons from I2a-A6105 group have DYS19=17 as a characteristic value. You have DYS19=16. Recently, we received one A6105+ result with DYS19=16. At the moment we can call that group I-A6105 or I-A6106 because both SNPs are at the same level.
- Jun-2016. Bernie Cullen updated via mass email to I2a members, that:
Ken’s Disles is L621+ but CTS10228-. You could call some Disles men I-L621* and others I-CTS4002*. Ken’s Dinaric group is I-CTS10228. Ken’s Dinaric-North group is complex and belongs to many different branches of I-CTS10228. Ken’s Dinaric-South group all belongs to the more specific I-S17250 branch. But this branch also includes some Dinaric-North men. Ken identified a Jewish Dinaric cluster (in Dinaric-North), we now know that these men are part of the I-A2512 branch and aren’t closely related to most other Dinaric branches.
- Aug-28-2016. Bernie Cullen updated blog i2a with new post:
… tree shows that the Dinaric-South group belongs to the I-PH908 branch. PH908 is a SNP that was first reported in the Pille Hallast survey in 2014. This SNP is not covered by the Big Y test and most those who have Big Y test result have no call status for PH908… PH908 could be a characteristic SNP for the Dinaric South cluster.
- Sep-2016. Zdenko Markovic via email:
So far it seems that A6105 and A6106 are at the same level. That does not mean that those SNP mutations happened at the same time. We do not know which is older because all persons who had tested both A6105 and A6106 received both positive results. I would recommend that you test one of these SNP.
- Oct-17-2016. Bernie Cullen via update on i2aproject blog:
The Dinaric-South group is defined by the STR marker values DYS448=19 and a low value for DYS449 (for example DYS449=30). We now know that the Dinaric-South cluster is defined by the SNP called PH908.
The Dinaric-North group is defined by the STR marker values DYS448=20 and a high value for DYS449 (for example DYS449=32). The Dinaric-North group is more complex and there is no single SNP that is specific to Dinaric-North and which excludes Dinaric-South.
- Nov-05-2016. YFULL updated I-Y4460 tree, and new parent branch appeared – I-Y3106, which now contains Y16810 (A6105, A6106), S8201, Y3118. Looks like there is some common Y-DNA characteristic for all of mentioned SNPs. So far I’m negative for all of them. So I may assume, that 50% I have some original Y-DNA on the very top level of Y4460 or some child branch has not been discovered yet.
- Nov-11-2016. My YSEQ M423-Panel results shows me, that I’m also positive for CTS10228 neighbor branchV4023 but negative for A6106 as a child branch of Y4460. Here is latest on Oc-22-2016 (when I ordered panel for sale price). And here is Nov-2016 updated full panel SNPs(actual update date Oct-31).
- Nov-19-2016, Zdenko Markovic suggest:
… those who have Y4460+ result in their Big Y test results also have Y3108+ result. Those who are in the I-Y4460* haplogroup could test Y3106. It is not available at YSeq, but they can put it in their SNP list through the Wish SNP order.
… there is also the fourth shared novel variant in the DYZ19 repeat region.
… I-A2512 people from Belarus and Ukraine are from Jewish diaspora. They belong to the more recent I-A11372 subgroup (or I-Y23115 in the YFull tree). Interestingly, all other I-A2512 (xA11372) participants are from Greece.
- Feb-16-2017. I discovered, that YFULL reorganized structure of Y4460, and Y16810 moved as sub-branch to A6105. A6106 still remain on the same level as A6105.
- Feb-17-2017. New SNP appeared on YFULL: Y4460 > id: YF08522.
- Feb-17-2017. By Bernie Cullen:
“YFull confirmed that YF07799 (ancestry Slovenia) is A6105+ A6106+ Y16810-. And a new Big Y was completed yesterday for a man with Belarus ancestry, I think it is A6105+ A6106+ but I see no result reported for Y16810. Zdenko will be able to do a better analysis.“
- Mar-14-2017 by Bernie Cullen from FTDNA I2a-hap-group page:
… one Big Y was completed on February 15, 2017, paternal ancestors from Belarus. He was the fifth Big Y for I-A6106. He is also A6105+, and no result was reported for Y16810 therefore he is likely Y16810-. He has 13 unique novel variants not reported in any previous Big Y, so probably his common ancestor with the other I-A6106 men lived more than 1000 years ago. To my knowledge he has not ordered the YFull analysis. His result is already shown on Zdenko’s Feb 2017 I-L621 draft tree.
- Mar-23-2017 from FTDNA I2a-hap-group
BigY results explained for Mr. Back (YF08522), Undefined Belarusian man (YF05044 – Yurkevich ?), new branch ERR1025605 (Vologda region in Russia).
- Apr-10-2017 by Łukasz Łapiński on Facebook “Genealogia Genetyczna“:
I2: 194 SNiPy, 60 gałązek. Interesująca nas “słowiańska” L621 powiększyła się tylko o 5 próbek:
– próbka węgierska stworzyła nową linię wraz z archeologiczna próbką z Rosji pod Y4460
– inna próbka daje nową linię (A14973) wraz podkarpacką pod BY128/Y5596. Datacja +-1300 lat (!)
– tuż obok dwie próbki Rosja/Ukraina kombinują nową rodzinę o nazwie A5875 (podobny wiek)
– nowa linia z serbską próbką pod “Kownatowską” PH908 (“czasy chrystusowe”)
- Apr-2017 added SK-1241 on yfull.
- May-2017 I tested by YSEQ: SK1241 C-, SK1242 G-.
- Jun-08-2017. YF10004 – new under SK1241/SK1242/Y31845. Also …
… there is a second CTS10228+ A2512- Y4460- Z17855- S17250-, this man has paternal ancestry from Alsace (southwestern Germany/France border area, now part of France). The Polish-ancestry and Alsatian-ancestry man don’t share any unique novel variants/SNPs.
- Jun-13-2017. from FTDNA I2a-hap-group
Yurkevich BigY update info. Not very clear.
- Looks like Y4460 may represent Vistula Venedi ancestry (2016 theory).
- Not sure yet, but guess, if I was A6105 pr A6106 positive, I would expect Belorussian ancestry.
- New SNP SK1241 seems to be Hungary related. I do forecast, that I may be positive, due to Carpathian relation, and some Hungarian surnames relatives in my village. UPD: But I am negative, based on YSEQ May-13-2017 test results – SK1241 C-, SK1242 G-.
- Research S17250 and PH908 in regards to Croats, White Croats, and as Carpathian ancestry. Dec-31-2016 L621 update on i2aproject shows colorful separation between L621 sub branches.
- ISOOG and YFULL keep all the time tree updated with new SNPs. FTDNA keep watching on them, but website doesn’t reflect all latest changes, which is bad.
- Research Dinaric race and historical research of whole Balkans plus Eastern-Europe and I2 haplogroup subclades is still relevant, but since S17250 is not my direct ancestral SNP I left this research for later..
- I received mtDNA results time ago -> “H” haplogroup (maternal line), but not yet finished post here on blog. Anyway there are many items to research, which may help me to clarify intersection between races, and locations and different ancestral directions.
- Besides Y-DNA and mtDNA tests, I made atDNA test via FTDNA (Family Finder test). More details here and here and here.
Main DNA sites:
Other DNA/Genetic related sites:
- I2a1b2a1 (I-CTS10228) – a strong marker of Slavic expansion [Feb-02-2016]
Genealogy Search related:
Y-DNA public email:
- Eupedia I2a haplogroup.
- A Journey back to the root.
- Stanley Petrowski (Stanisław Petraszczuk) DNA blog