atDNA [86-8-6]

UPD: Latest article about similar information is atDNA #3 [ethnicity admixture]

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In late 2014 (Dec-08) I received FTDNA results about my atDNA via “Family Finder” test.
Previously, in 2014 I made Y-DNA test, so I belong to paternal DNA lineage within haplogroup I2. More details here.

Here is short at-DNA results, based on FTDNA:

  • 86% – European,
  • 8% – Jewish/Ashkenazi,
  • 6% – Middle Eastern.

atDNA_more

So what does this all mean?

atDNA.

Autosomal is DNA from one of our chromosomes located in the cell nucleus. It generally excludes the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes.

The autosomal DNA in our chromosomes comes from ancestors from thousands of years ago, not just 7 generations ago. [1]

If you have brother/sister or uncle/aunt it’s close relatives. But these atDNA results are not so close in time meaning. Besides it’s very low probability to find relatives, because it’s about DNA shared by your very far ancestors, and that DNA passed to you through your father/mother and grand-parents from both sides. Here is how it works:

transmission_cartoon

You’ve got two copies of each chromosome, having received one copy of each chromosome from your mother and one chromosome from your father (this is true for your autosomes, but not for your X, Y, and mitochondria). [5]

Or here, another, but the same illustration [6]:

illustration

Or even more detailed here (comparing with Y-DNA and mt-DNA):

mythbusting-autosomal-chart

As we see:

  • atDNA is passed from both lines, and always is mixed.
  • Y-DNA is passed ONLY via male lineage for 100%.
  • mtDNA is passed from both lines, but it’s always sign of maternal lineage.

Family Finder: Chromosomes.

Here is snapshot from FTDNA of my 22 chromosomes, and regions which I share with other people.

atDNA_chromos_and_matches_1cM

Note:

  • grey regions in chromosomes is “SNP poor region. Not tested for Family Finder.”.
  • color regions are genes I share with my atDNA matched people (who tested atDNA also via FTDNA). Snapshot made with 5 people in compare list and in 1cM mode.Which is very very small to get detailed relations.

cM – centiMorgan.

is a unit of recombinant frequency which is used to measure genetic distance. It is often used to imply distance along a chromosome, and takes into account how often recombination occurs in a region. A region with few cMs undergoes relatively less recombination. The number of base pairs to which it corresponds varies widely across the genome (different regions of a chromosome have different propensities towards crossover). One centiMorgan corresponds to about 1 million base pairs in humans on average. The centiMorgan is equal to a 1% chance that a marker at one genetic locus on a chromosome will be separated from a marker at a second locus due to crossing over in a single generation.

Family Finder: Matches – people who shares DNA with me.

FTDNA has huge database of people who requested atDNA test, and based on this FTDNA gives me the list of matches – people who matches my atDNA; people with whom I share common DNA.

atDNA_matches

It’s my top of list. And I have already contacted those people. So far, no significant relations, just common relation either to Ukraine or Poland.

And if there is question about relations, it’s always complicated to get some sharp details about common ancestor based on atDNA results. In FTDNA test I have list of people, who matches to me as “2nd – 5th Cousin”. To understand what is this there is table:

11296090004_53a5494e1b_b

Here is much better diagram from http://thegeneticgenealogist.com :

sharedcmproject_jul-2016

Family Finder: Geo Locations.

So I guess, that based on matched people, FTDNA decide the location of common shared ancestors. The test gives results also about geo-locations of people who are DNA related to me.

atDNA_geo

Note:

  • yellow color region is Eastern Europe. It’s 84% in genome.
    • plum color – is Southern Europe. It’s 2% in my genome of all European in me.
  • blue color, inside of yellow region is Ashkenazi gene for 8%. In fact, the geo-location shows, that it’s those Ashkenazi who came from Poland. No idea from where exactly, but I do collect all Polish locations in separate post with hope to research some good results sooner or later.
  • light purple is 6% of Middle Eastern (Asia Minor), center in Turkey.

That matches list, and geo-locations map show me that I am more closer by atDNA to European people. The fact I’m European is well known for me due to my previous Y-DNA test which reveals that I’am “I2a1b2a1 aka I-CTS10228” which is related to Southern Europe. And according to latest genetics research results, I2 is more European lineage rather than native Ukrainian R1a1 haplogroup. More details in my previous post about general Y-DNA.

But still, there are some common shared genes with Jewish/Ashkenazi people. And latter one is the biggest question for me for current 2015 year.

Ashkenazi

  • is the branch of the Jewish population that settled in Germany and then Eastern Europe during the Jewish Diaspora.

Wiki:

are a Jewish ethnic division who coalesced as a distinct community of Jews in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the 1st millennium.

As result of Facebook group research, I have the following:

Elan Caspi: Jews were about 20% of the Polish population around 100 years ago. Some of them hid their Jewish origins when they married non-Jews, and their children were told nothing about it. I would consider the possibility that one of your great grandparents was born to a Jewish family and converted. It’s quite possible that your 6% Middle Eastern also comes from a Jewish origin. So you may be ~14% Jewish.

Back to Y-DNA and Jewish.

Previously, I did Y-DNA research (67 markers), and results tell me I’m solid member of I-P37 aka I2a1, in last chain CTS10228+ (I2a1b2a1). Besides this, Bernie Cullen (moderator of I2Haplogroup in FTDNA) helped me with details regarding signs of Jewish men. So, this is list of markers, which gives sign of belonging to Y-DNA-I-haplogroup-Jewish-cluster:

  • DYS537 = 11
  • DYS464a = 13
  • DYS456 = 14
  • DYS458 = 18
  • DYS576 = 19
  • DYS570 = 16

And I checked my exact DNA results, and these markers are totally different (no single matches):

  • DYS537 = 12
  • DYS464a = 12
  • DYS456 = 15
  • DYS458 = 17
  • DYS576 = 18
  • DYS570 = 18

Looks like I have the sign, that my male line has no Jewish DNA.

Here is quote from Bernie Cullen email (Jan-08-2015):

All the other chromosomes, including the X chromosome, contain contributions from many different ancestral lines, both male and female ancestors, these chromosomes are mixtures and they are very different even in parent and child, two brothers etc. But the Y chromosome is not a mixture of the Y chromosomes of your ancestors. It is almost identical to the Y chromosomes of your father, and his father, and his father, etc. for thousands of years. There are only a few very rare mutations on the Y chromosome, and these are what we look for in the 67 marker test and the SNP tests.
Your 67 markers do not match the Jewish cluster, so there is no evidence of Jewish ancestry on your purely male line of ancestry.

Bernie Cullen (Mar-09-2015):

There are only two known I-CTS10228* people in the I-P37 project, one is from Poland and the other belongs to the “Jewish Dinaric cluster”. Sample 18440 shares two novel variants with the person in the Jewish Dinaric cluster. The positions (Chr Y: 13203040 and 9853064) are close to the centromere and it may be difficult to design primers to test these SNPs individually. We have asked a related Jewish Dinaric cluster member to test 13203040 at YSeq.net

Outcomes.

  1. Amount of Jewish genes in my DNA (8% or even 14%) came definitely not from my male line.
  2. It might be from paternal or maternal parents.
  3. But how exactly, I don’t know yet. Very probably through relations with Polish people.
  4. It’s the time to research atDNA more detailed, especially native Polish genotypes as well as Ashkenazi.

PS.

And test costs me ONLY 69$.

Besides Y-DNA and atDNA tests, I made mtDNA test 🙂 and I will post details a bit later.

Resources:

[1] – My Autosomal DNA Quandary Persists.
[2] – How are people related? Understanding consanguinity.
[3] – From DNA to Genetic Genealogy.
[4] – Triangulation.
[5] – How much of your genome do you inherit from a particular grandparent?
[6] – Autosomal DNA Tutorial.
[7] – Am I partly Jewish? An unexpected turn of events.
[8] – History of the Jews in Switzerland.

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