I-Y4460 [ydna] aka I2a1b2a1a1b

UPD: The latest, 2018 article is about Big Y test results analysis, read here.

This is about Y4460 ydna haplogroup which is a sub branch for of CTS10228. It’s time to research deeper to Y chromosome, considering timeframe ~2300 years ago, when new man was born with mutation, which caused Y4460 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in his population genome.

For those who reads this first time, I recommend to read my first article “R1a vs. I2a“. Then more detailed article – I2a1b2a1 aka I-CTS10228, which is about my 2014/2017 research results. Since 2014 year many things happened, many discoveries done, and it’s time to have a look closer to I2a Dinaric YDNA genetics.

My goal of this article is to define details about my belonging to I2a haplogroup clade. Ideally, logical end of this article will be BigY results with newly found terminal SNP, which explains mutated DNA from my father, which defines me as different person – new person in genealogical tree I research since 2003 year.

This post intended to be also always-updated, as soon as new information arrived, but strictly related to Y4460 and downstream branches. That parent article will remain up to date, but only regards that parent level.


According to 2017 update in March, by Eupedia.COM team, Y4460 is a neighbor haplogroup to S17250 and Z17855, and all represent Slavic countries:

Here is information from FTDNA group “Baltic Sea“.

In 2014 results of BigY Survey Program give us a new portion of knowledge about a big and not structured up till now part of Slavic languages people I-L621 L147.2 CTS5966+ which are a remains of Venedi Peoples from Roman Empire period (see the location of the Venedi in the upper Vistula region and south of Polesian Lowland in times of the Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117-138). It is divided between two or tree subclades: S17250 – majority of tested, and Y4460 possible a remnant of the Baltic Veneti, and maybe Z17855. S17250 is divided further into at least three subclades, maybe represented 3 area of settlement/3 tribes groups: Z16971 (probably White Croats  descendants), Y4882 (probably a Drevlyans and Dregoviches descendants), A356/Z16983 (probably Moravians descendants). Y4460 is divided further into two subclades: Z16973 (with subbranch Y3118 and S8201/Y8942) and Y13498.

I also confirmed above theory with Stanislaw Plewako via email, and he assured me, that there is work in progress related to this topic. So I keep watching…

Eupedia.COM gives me the information in more historical and geographical area. But as genetics say, this topic is under many questions. So far, I keep watching, analyze, and maybe later I will publish my own research in this direction. But at the moment, this article is about only genetics.

Another source is quote from YFULL facebook group by Ted Kandell (Thanks to Srđan Vekić who brought that source to me):

The earliest expansion within I-CTS10228 is I-Y4460, with a tMRCA of 200 BCE. The earliest members of this subclade are a German from Hamburg (a formerly West Slavic region), and Russians, Belarussians, Ukrainians, and a few Finns. This fits well with the Antes, who were found in Ukraine and at this early stage seem to be indistinguishable from the ancestral Veneti from further north.
The origins of I-CTS10228 appear to be in the Baltic region among the ancestral (Vistula) Veneti (“Sarmatae Venedi”), the “Winden” or “Wends”, but they appear to have made a rapid migration to the far south within 250 years of their origin, perhaps with a few captives or mercenaries living in Greece. We should also be able to trace this Baltic-originated migration southward through the mtDNA and autosomal DNA.

Here is full version from rootsweb.com archive posted Mar-27-2017 by Didier Vernade with permission by Ted Kandell.


SNP is defined by ISOGG depends on place in tree of all parent branches. So if new parent branch found, the lace is changed, and haplogroup name is changed.

  • Previous versions: Jun-2017 (Y4460 was defined as I2a1b2a1b),
  • Latest version (Aug-2017), which defines Y4460 as I2a1b2a1a1b:

Here is example from http://dna-academy.ru, where we can see age of subclades:

So, ~2300 years ago, first mutation Y4460 appeared.

familytreedna.com [FTDNA]

Since 2014, I have my DNA materials on FamilyTreeDNA.com company. And I am Y4460+ since Feb-2015, but only May-28-2016, FTDNA updated my confirmed haplogroup:

Jan-2018 it’s still the same regarding terminal SNP and map. But I ordered Big Y test, and I have more positive SNP now. Detailed about Big Y here.


This is most up to date service, where I always see very recent news about SNPs and STRs. FTDNA is very slow in regards to updates. But as soon, as BigY test results in *.BAM file done by FTDNA, there is ability to upload it to yfull. And I plan to do it. But so far I don’t have BAM file from FTDNA, but I ordered YFULL analysis based on VCF file (from BigY test) and jan-13-2018 I’ve been added to YFULL tree as #YF11414.

Snapshot Y4460 Jan-13-2018 (v6.01):

Other snapshots of Y4460: Oct-22-2015, Dec-07-2015, Nov-19-2016, Feb-16-2017, Apr-2017, May-2017, Jul-11-2017 (after YSEQ results analysis), Aug-05-2017, Sep-21-2017Sep-27-2017, Nov-29-2017 (v5.08).


  • Green ellipse is about my tested markers, where I am positive.
  • Red crossing line – negative.
  • Grey dotted ellipse – NOT YET tested by me, but maybe later I will order the test

Here is current chain of SNPs/haplogroups which I do positively belong to:

I-P37 -> M423 -> L621 -> CTS10228 -> Y3120/Y3116/FGC12085 -> Y4460 -> (Y3106? B57?)

Note (after Big Y, my yDNA “Test Taken” has been updated), I’m:

  • S20602+ (on CTS1-228 level)
  • Y3116+ (on Y3120 level)
  • FGC12085+ (on Y3120 level)


Here is quote of Zdenko Marković from email correspondence:

You do not have Y3106 (ChrY-hg38: 5,558,221, hg19: 5,426,262), result reported in your VCF file maybe because of small number of reads (less than 10). That is why we ask people to send their BAM files to YFull.

For more details about Y4460 subclades, here is my own made collage of information:

I’m negative for all major known sub branches of Y3106. But I may be positive to Y3106 itself (B57 kinda hint here). It would explain, that my YDNA ancestry has novel SNP somewhere after Y4460 but not into Y1306 (Jun-2017) known sub branches. So far on yfull, there is map of STRs for Y3106 (Aug-2017 snapshot):

If I understand correctly these 3 STRs (DYS439=13, DYS518=35, DYR173=24) should have DER value, and then person is defined as “belongs to”. Jun-2017 snapshot had other STRs in list. It was not clear about belonging, because I don’t have all STRs, which might require Y-DNA111 test or Big Y test. and Aug-2017 snapshot shows it much narrower. I have only DYS439 = 13, so I wait BigY results to shed the light here.

So far, represented people on all branches under Y4460 on yfull refer to countries (Nov-2017):

  • UKR 4 (on different levels, so UKR genetics might be very common for all nested)
  • BLR 3 (on different levels, so BLR genetics might be very common for all nested)
  • POL 3 (inside of Y3118, S8201)
  • RUS 3 (inside of SK1241, A6105)
  • FIN 2 (inside of Y3118)
  • HUN 1 (inside of SK1241, Interesting. Maybe via fino-ugric relations with RUS?)
  • SVN 1 (inside of A6105)
  • LVA 1 (inside of A6105)
  • LTU 1 (inside of Y3118)
  • MDA 1 (inside of Y3118)
  • USA 1 (inside of Y3118)
  • SWE 1 (Y4460*)

This list is not necessary is definition of genetics-to-country belonging/relation. It’s rather simple statistics under Y4460, from which countries ancestry of DNA material is. Many examples are about being Ukrainian and Belorussian citizen, but ethnicity from Poland, or vice versa. Interesting, that UKR and BLR might be common genetic/DNA for all Y4460 nested branches. I suspect, it might be defined by Y3120/Y3116 SNPs somehow.


Blog keeps posted us with I2a haplogroup area – latest posts, about latest discoveries. And sometimes I find it useful if I make a decision to pass/order some YDNA test on FTDNA.


B57 appears with note “not reported in BigY, should be checked in I-S8201”.


I also ordered dedicated kit from YSEQ.net, and time to time I order additional tests. So YSEQ.net is 2nd company, where I have my DNA materials sent. So far, based on YSEQ I’m: Y4460 A+, A2512 C-, A6105 C-, A6106 C-, SK1241 C-, SK1242 G-, B57+.

Jun-25-2017 ordered B57 SNP test, which looks like is the same level as Y3106. So far it shows, that B57 is downstream Y4460. Additionally, yfull.com shows it meanwhile at the same level as Y3106. New snapshot of all my YSEQ results, Jul-09-2017, Full image here – click to open large image. Updated Jan-13-2018 (hg38 based):


Also, here is updated YSEQ panel with a name “I2a-M423” (Jan-13-2018 still relevant). It’s cut only that piece which is related to me:

  • Wrapped by green rectangle are positive SNPs for me.
  • Wrapped by red rectangle are negative SNPs for me.



yseq.net has reference on its “Results Page” to ybrowse.org records. And exploring the site, it gives ability to research Y-DNA, in particular chromosome Y. Details here on ybrowse.

Here is examples.


  • hg19, position 9,028,830
  • hg38, position 9,191,221

It says, that mutation is from G to A. According to YSEQ I have Y4460 A+.


New B57 is positive for me: T+

  • hg19 position 17,061,171
  • hg38 position 14,949,291

B57 T+ means, that ancestral allele is C and derived is T (mutation from C to T).  And ybrowse also shows, that it’s located near to gene rs758101523 (no SNPedia info yet).



This site shows difference between hg19 and hg38, introduced by FTDNA and affected in YFULL service.




According to ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Chromosome Y “contains over 200 genes; contains over 50 million base pairs, of which approximately 50% have been determined“. There is chromosome Y MapViewer, where we can see exact location of mutation.

Y4460 (hg38, position 9,191,221)

So far, near to “hg19 9,028,830 position” there was/is no significant well defined genes. Not sure how important it can be, but the position is between TTTY24P and OFD1P3Y pseudogenes. Looking to hg38 position 9,191,221 USPDYP4 pseudogene.

B57 (hg38 position 14,949,291)

NCBI doesn’t have info about B57, but there is info about nearly located rs758101523. SNPedia.com doesn’t have any information yet.

Btw, above snapshots made withing assembly “GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33)” (2016/03/21). Because only 2 are available in dropdown. But the latest release of for genome standard is GRCh38.p12 (GCA_000001405.27) (2017/12/21).


(bookmarklet based on FTDNA YDNA Classic results page)

This is nice service, I used it time ago in 2015 for Family Finder bookmarklet. But FTDNA changed API then, so those bookmarklet don’t work anymore. But here is snapshot made by yDNA bookmarklet based on latest YFull 5.05 tree version.

Below snapshot is only based on FTDNA group DnagenExperiment

And here is how UkraininaDNA looks:

I will write a detailed post about dnagen.net soon.



L621 Google Map

by Krzysztof Narog.

Despite the name of map, it contains people grouped by FTDNA SNP/markers given by FTDNA groups administrators. So far, Y4460 is represented by region “Y4460 -> [S8201]+[A6105]+[Y4460*]” which is very wide. I discussed this map with Krzysztof, and he assured me, he will find a time to regroup regions, based on latest people’s results and latest FTDNA/YFULL SNP findings.

2017 I-Y4460 Updates

  • Feb-16-2017. I discovered, that YFULL reorganized structure of Y4460, and Y16810 moved as sub-branch to A6105. A6106 still remain on the same level as A6105.
  • Feb-17-2017. New SNP appeared on YFULL: Y4460 > id: YF08522.
  • Feb-17-2017. By Bernie Cullen:
    YFull confirmed that YF07799 (ancestry Slovenia) is A6105+ A6106+ Y16810-. And a new Big Y was completed yesterday for a man with Belarus ancestry, I think it is A6105+ A6106+ but I see no result reported for Y16810. Zdenko will be able to do a better analysis.
  • Mar-14-2017 by Bernie Cullen from FTDNA I2a-hap-group page:
    … one Big Y was completed on February 15, 2017, paternal ancestors from Belarus. He was the fifth Big Y for I-A6106. He is also A6105+, and no result was reported for Y16810 therefore he is likely Y16810-. He has 13 unique novel variants not reported in any previous Big Y, so probably his common ancestor with the other I-A6106 men lived more than 1000 years ago. To my knowledge he has not ordered the YFull analysis. His result is already shown on Zdenko’s Feb 2017 I-L621 draft tree.
  • Apr-2017 added SK-1241 on yfull.
  • May-2017 I tested by YSEQ: SK1241 C-, SK1242 G-.
  • Jun-08-2017. YF10004 – new under SK1241/SK1242/Y31845.
  • Jun-27-2017 by Bernie Cullen on FTDNA group page:
    I-Y4460 is one of the four named branches of I-CTS10228 “Dinaric”, and it is the second most common branch (behind I-S17250). The I-Y4460 haplogroup prevails in eastern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Baltic countries). All persons from this haplogroup are from the Dinaric North cluster.
    Almost all Y4460+ men are also Y3106+, kit 318578 is the only known Y4460+ Y3106- result.
    Because most Big Ys include a Y3106 result we can say that Y3106 is immediately below Y4660, and that most Y4660+ men are also Y3106+
  • Jun-27-2017, by Bernie Cullen from FTDNA i-2a-hap-group about concerns regarding to I-B57 (ybrowse):
    In my opinion, this placement is uncertain because very few Big Y results include the B57 position. It’s possible that YFull has knowledge of more Big Y results that are not shared with our project, but I think it’s unlikely that YFull knows the exact position of B57.
  • Jul-07-2017, I received B57 T+ by YSEQ.net.
  • Jul-13-2017, Bernie Cullen on FTDNA group page:
    Andrii, thank you for reporting your B57+ results. This is more evidence that B57 is equivalent to Y3106. I see that B57 is now included in the I2a-M423 SNP panel at YSeq.
  • Jul-15-2017, Zdenko Marković on FTDNA group page:
    @Andrii, thank you for your info regarding your B57+ result. This SNP is found in four I-Y4460 samples from Estonian Biocentre. One of these samples (Vepsas) belongs to the I-A6106, one (Litvania) to the I-Y3118 and two (Belarus) to the I-CTS5779 (the haplogroup below Y3118). Three Big Y result from the I-S8201 have no-call result and we do not know B57 status in this haplogroup. On the other side, YFull found one B57- result in one I-SK1241 sample from another survey. It seems that B57 is at the same level as Y3106. One B57 SNP test from I-S8201 is needed to confirm that.
  • Jul-30-2017, Roman Sychev answering my question on yfull facebook group, regrading Y3106 vs. B57:

This does not contradict the topology of the tree. You can belong to I-Y3106*… but if you have Y3116-, then you will split the current I-Y3106 branch.

Note: Y3116 is shown as additional SNP on level of Y3120, which is new SNP – parent for all Z17855, A2512, Y4460, S17250

  • Aug-01-2017, finally 🙂 I ORDERED BigY test. As Roberta Estes mentioned in her article “Big Y – $395 (Best price I’ve ever seen on this test.)”.
  • Aug-26-2017, I discovered, that ISOGG updated I haplogroup tree, by adding nested sub-branches to CTS10228 and Y4460, but no new branches under Y4460 yet.
  • Oct-2017, FTDNA changed their base algorithm from h19 to hg38. And there are some complexities with delivering BigY results and as result YFULL service compatibility. Hope all will be settled.
  • Nov/Dec-2017 received BigY results. Dedicated article in progress.
  • Dec-26-2017, Zdenko Marković: “You do not have Y3106 (ChrY-hg38: 5,558,221, hg19: 5,426,262), result reported in your VCF file maybe because of small number of reads (less than 10). That is why we ask people to send their BAM files to YFull.”

2018 I-Y4460 Updates

  • Jan-05-2018 YFULL upgraded from v5.08 to v6.01 but no changes in Y4460 branch.
  • Jan-05-2018 Stanislaw Plewako added/assigned me into subgroup Y4460 \ B57 on GTDNA Baltic Sea group.
  • Jan-13-2018 I ordered YFULL dna analysis based on VCF file, I have from BigY test by FTDNA company.


  • AFAIK, Dinaric-South is well defined by I-PH908. (which is sub branch of S17250). Not yet sure, if I2a genetics community defined Dinaric-North, maybe Y4460 is one of candidates, because since 2016 there is no single SNP found for “North”.
  • Looks like Y4460 may represent Vistula Venedi ancestry (2016 theory). And based on yfull 6.01, looks like UKR and BLR is most common ancestry. So it might be parent DNA for all branches.
  • Looks like Y3106 is on the same level as B57.
  • Looks like Y3116 (Y3120 level) has significant influence on Y3106 tree.
  • Not sure yet, but A6105/A6106/Y16810 may represent Slovenia/Poland ancestry.
  • Not sure yet, but SK1241 /SK1242/Y31845 seems to be Russian/Hungary related.



UPD: The latest, 2018 article is about Big Y test results analysis, read here.


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