This was long road for me to order Big Y test, and mostly it’s because I didn’t know the real benefit of it. Now is the time to analyze results. So far, there are 3 articles about my yDNA research here on LUND-IA-K blog:
Since 2014 till 2017 I was not sure, what Big Y can give me, but now I realized, that main purpose is to find out new SNP, potentially unique only in my Y chromosome (meaning in my yDNA ancestry). And with a hope, by having it done, it should help me to find male relatives (yDNA matches) a bit faster and maybe more precisely.
UPD: Sep-2018, I received great news – another DNA test result from Lithuania, based on FTDNA I2a haplogroup group managers showed similarity with my DNA. And it caused FTDNA to name a new branch I-Y128456.
I’ve seen many posts/messages/comments from FTDNA and i2aproject blog about recent Big Y results, and I started to realize, that at this moment, having Y4460+ and B57+ result it can go very long to get more details until someone will appear with Big Y results very similar to mine. So I finally decided to contribute to yDNA research, by ordering Big Y test. It kinda motivates me, overwhelm, that using my results, FTDNA and yDNA community in general, will have more details about Y chromosome of men similar to me.
So what is Big Y test in fact?
The Big Y product is a direct paternal lineage test. We have designed it to explore deep ancestral links on our common paternal tree. It tests both thousands of known branch markers and millions of places where there may be new branch markers. We intend it for expert users with an interest in advancing science.
Nice article about what is in fact: Big Y Release
From FTDNA email (by Larry Mayka, Volunteer Administrator of the Polish(-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Project)
The Big Y test examines 10 million locations on the Y chromosome in search of both known and undiscovered SNPs (mutations). It not only places you precisely on the current haplotree, it may create a new branch or split a level. Effectively, it maps your patrilineage all the way back to “Adam” and all the way forward into modern times. Once you have your own Big Y results—and (as I also recommend) submit them to YFull for professional analysis—all you need to do is to persuade your Y-DNA matches to do the same. As they do, over time, you and they may define more and more recent branches on the haplotree, and YFull will estimate your Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA). Thus, the Big Y is arguably the last Y chromosome test you will ever need.
David Farrel from FTDNA Polish group comments:
BigY results will be available for viewing by project administrators without you needing to to anything. However, once the results arrive, I suggest you transfer them to YFull for their interpretation. That will cost an additional $50. Once you are ready to do that, post your inclination here and guidance will be provided on how to accomplish the transfer of data.
Here is great quote of Bernie Cullen from FTDNA I2a project group:
…Big Y helped us sort out a high number of SNPs, and revealed a high number of novel variants, but almost every Big Y in our project helps us sort out some number of named SNPs and/or reveals some number of novel variants.
FTDNA Big Y Delivery
Jul-31-2017 late evening, I observed FTDNA site, and price for the test was 575$. Almost wanted to order, clicked a few times the button 🙂 I was ready to order at the very night, but went slip with positive thoughts. Surprisingly, Aug-01-2017 morning, I saw a message about sale, and Big Y test was for 449$. Morning, next day, I saw new message, and new price was 395$. So with no doubt I ordered the test. From dna-explained blog:
Big Y – $395 (Best price I’ve ever seen on this test.)
And I said to myself – Yes, indeed.
I should have received results in early October, but then I have message (and I thought it’s related to recent issue in Huston)
But then another event happens – FTDNA changed algorithm standard from hg19 to hg38. Here is quote of message on FTDNA by Zdenko Marković from I2a FTDNA group end of 2017:
An important notice for those who have Big Y test results or ordered this test. FTDNA is updating its representation of Big Y result. The most important change is in human genome build. Until now, all your results as well as data in your VCF and BAM files were based on the hg19 human genome representation. As of today they will be displayed in a new hg38 human genome representation. Maybe you noticed that you have „Results Pending“ page when you click on your Big Y section. You will be notified by email once your results are processed and ready. More about hg38 can be found here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/grc/human What does this mean regarding your results? It will not change your haplogroup. It will not affect your place in the haplotree. But it will change the position of your SNPs and your private novel variants. Some new features in your Big Y results representing are also expected. Ray Banks from ISOGG put the comparison table for the known SNPs here: Google Doc YBrowse.org is also updating to hg38.
But shortly, it’s about how position is defined now. Here is fresh article from DNA-explained, where it’s visualized:
I will highlight that change more detailed in future article about YFULL.
So FTDNA Big Y results were continuing to delay…
So what? I’m fine. I know there were problems behind, but I wasn’t not in rush.
And finally, Nov-28-2017 test results received 🙂 But looks like some work on clarifying results was doing in early Dec-2017 also…
Big Y Raw Data
As for me, software developer, the most interesting is raw data files, where FTDNA (or any other companies) represent DNA/Genetics data converted in digitalized form, so that people can simplify the view and understand what is on high level genetics for.
This is new CSV file, comparing other CSV files, FTDNA already offering. It’s downloaded as “344010_BigY_Data_20171129.csv”, and I do download at least on monthly bases. For example Dec-2017 it contained 289913 records and Jan-2018 it contains 308389 records. It’s huge file, so MS Excel when opens is slightly slow. The structure is similar as results on FTDNA page. For the ease of usage it’s better to enable filtering or use search.
It’s a compressed file, archive, with a name like bigy2-78____8460.zip which after unpacking, shows as folder of data files:
- readme.txt with content:
For the advanced user, we have made the BigY raw data files available for download. The download will be a zipped archive that contains a .vcf and a .bed file.
The VCF file contains a list of all variants found using the build 37.3 human genome reference. You can find more info about the VCF file format here:
Only variants that contain “PASS” in the “Filter” column should be considered. We include variants that did not pass our analysis standards for your informational purposes only.
The BED file contains the regions that were targeted in BigY and passed our sequencing and analysis quality control. You can find more info about the BED file format here:
- regions.bed text file with content like this:
chrY 2781361 2781434
chrY 2781435 2781438
chrY 2781439 2781447
chrY 2781448 2781458
chrY 2781459 2781482
chrY 2781483 2781500
chrY 2781700 2781701
chrY 2781702 2783276
chrY 2783279 2783800
chrY 2783801 2783813
chrY 2783921 2790759
chrY 2790762 2793652
chrY 2793653 2794174
chrY 2794183 2794186
- variants.vcf huge file of data like this:
Btw, I also have VCF file from DNA.land, they offer it after DNA analysis done. More about my results u can read in my article “atDNA #3“. IT IS NOT the same file. yes, format the same, but content is different.
It’s a binary file, with size varies between 700 MB to 1.2 GB, depends on tests on FTDNA (included mtDNA or not).
Not sure from what date, but FTDNA stopped to provide BAM file. And now, despite the fact person should request file by support ticket, it still is not generated. I’m waiting more detailed from support team or FTDNA community groups.
This file is important for DNA analysis using YFULL.com, and I plan to upload it there, as soon as I receive file from FTDNA. Here is their last (Dec-22-2017) comment o delay:
During the Big Y update we had halted the production of BAM files, I have requested for your BAM file but it will not be processed until we begin processing requests again. Please note that our files now on the matches page enable you to browse the BAM file in real time so if you would like to browse something before you receive your file you may search in your results.
Having raw DNA files is always good thing, because we can transfer among different DNA companies, for additional or alternative analysis. So After I receive BAM file I will transfer to YFULL. But meanwhile, Jan-13-2018, I ordered DNA analysis on YFULL.COM using VCF file, and will review results in dedicated article soon.
May-27-2018, I finally received BAM file from FTDNA:
I never had hg19 BAM, and I see in comments o Facebook, people write it was ~700MB, and now I have hg38 BAM file, and it’s 577.2 MB for me – shows on FTDNA page, but in fact downloads with size 605.2MB. I even saw, person wrote BAM file was ~1GB. Not sure what the proper size of file and on what criterias it depends, but so far I uploaded it to YFULL and I am waiting for results.
Big Y Results and Matches
There are 3 tabs on Big Y results page: “Named Variants“, “Unnamed Variants“, “Matching“.
The Named Variants tab displays which SNPs I belong to, assuming they are well known SNPs, and they were named time ago. Or have been recently named from Novel Variants. Here is a timeline of changes: Dec-2017 – 70931 SNPs, Jan-2018 – 78875, Feb-2018 – 84851.
Search in the table works very slow !!!!
Here is how it looks about known SNP (example for Y4460 which is my terminal SNP for 2017/2018 timeline so far):
There were 33 “Unnamed variants” for my test results in Dec-2017. But now, Jan-2018, Feb-2018 it shows 23 records. Those 23 records are shown in exported CSV file also as “Novel Variants”. And in fact there are much more “Novel Variants” in file !!!
To explain what does it mean and how it works, I have to mention, that when I started this article in Dec-2017, I saw a novel variant of SNP (T-C) at position 11441089, and here is here is snapshot how it looked. But later on, YDNA community, discovered that similarity among DNA data/results, and named that SNP as FGC12074 So no it’s not even listed in my “Unnamed Variants”, and it make sense.
And if I understand correctly, number of “Unnamed variants” will be changing all the time, and even can be zero, due to all variants receive a new name in database.
And double check is the “Named Variants” page, when FGC12074 now is listed and looks like this:
And btw, here is how YFULL represents information about SNP in hg38 position 11441089:
Note: But I’m not fully sure, because ybrowse shows FGC12074 info since genome 2014 year, so not sure how FTDNA trace it…
So it is how “Unnamed” becomes “Named” variants/SNPs.
Another concern here, that FTDNA as company doesn’t have all information about SNP and positions in Y chromosome, and it’s well known issue, that information on FTDNA is not always up to date.
So I have 23 unnamed Variants, defined by position in Y chromosome (I assume it’s hg38 based), then I log in to YFULL.com, and I use their tool “Browse raw data”, and here is a few search results:
- FTDNA Unnamed Variant 11559952 is shown on YFULL and refers to SNP A19528 but it’s not in YFULL tree yet.
- FTDNA Unnamed Variant 7093447 is shown on YFULL and refers to SNP FGC63213 but it’s not in YFULL tree yet.
- and a few other similar.
- And also, position which is not known, is also has NO SNP info on YFULL.
The fact I belong to Y4460 is not new for me, but Big Y page has a nice visualization: Nov-29 snapshot, Dec-01 snapshot (still valid for Jan-2018):
New information is about I-S20602, which is not significant but still. I know about that middle SNP in whole chain from L621 to Y4460. Here is how it shown on YFULL page for Y3120 (parent SNP for Y4460).
In regards to Matches, I will publish separate article, but so far, Big Y gives only 2 people in list (when it’s clicked on Y4460 SNP):
Private Novel Variants
FTDNA I2a managers contacted me (before posting the message on FTDNA group page), I sent a VCF file for further detailed research, and after some days, I received some details about my Big Y results. Quote from Zdenko Marković:
19 private novel variants reported. Four of them are inside DYZ19 repeat region and they are considered as unreliable for philogeny. Some of your private novel variants are already named because they are found also in other haplogroups. For example, Z44802 is found also in G2a haplogroup, BZ1987 in the Q-YP4722 haplogroup. The positions and ancestral/derived (reference/genotype) alleles of your private novel variant are:
I2aProject FTDNA group (blog)
Aug/Nov-2017, I was actively reading activity feed on the group page, and I expected Bernie Cullen provide some information about my Big Y results. And here we are (quote of Bernie’s words on FTDNA group page, early Dec-2017):
A Big Y was completed on November 28, 2017 for Lundiak kit 344010. He has paternal ancestry from Ukraine. According to his 67 STR markers, he belongs to the Dinaric-North cluster, and from previous SNP testing he knows he is Y4460+ and ancestral for some downstream SNPs. His Big Y confirmed that he is P37+ M423+ CTS10228+ S20602+/YP196+ and Y4460+. He is ancestral (negative) for all named SNPs below Y4460, therefore he is I-Y4460*. There are some other I-Y4460* Big Y results but Mr Lundiak doesn’t share any novel variants below Y4460 with these results. Mr Lundiak has 19 private novel variants but four of these are in a repeat region and they are considered unreliable for phylogeny. For the moment, Mr Lundiak belongs to a paternal line by himself, a branch that is approximately 2200 years old according to YFull’s calculations. His common male ancestor with all other Big Y results lived very close to the founding of I-Y4460 and very close to the founding of Dinaric as whole (I-S20602)
That part about “founding of Dinaric” is very inspiring 🙂 Because, it might be the true that my male ancestry is derived from old but authentic people living at the same place where I born. More research in this area is in progress.
“This update shows a major new branch called I-Y128456, the two known members are from Lithuania and Ukraine. This branch is not shown at FTDNA or YFull. Maybe FTDNA or YFull will chose another name for this branch.”
So far, “Ukraine” represented by me (Andrii Lundiak) and “Lithuania” represented by person with surname Daujotas with his MRCA Kazimieras b.~1880. in Mažeikiai. I’m going to contact and research the common ancestry.
Updated FTDNA yDNA results
On FTDNA yDNA results page, and the section “Test Taken” is now much bigger. Now it’s more complicated to trace what SNP+ was added. I download CSV file on monthly basis, and compare personally, but would be great to receive email from FTDNA. Anyway, here is a snapshot made by me Dec-2017. And here is results for Sep-2018:
A5013+, BY11750+, BY18729+, BY1953+, BY22302+, BY2518+, BY27761+, BY3070+, CTS10058+, CTS10194+, CTS10228+, CTS10247+, CTS10936+, CTS11030+, CTS11441+, CTS11768+, CTS12003+, CTS1600+, CTS176+, CTS1799+, CTS1846+, CTS2159+, CTS2193+, CTS2257+, CTS2514+, CTS3296+, CTS3517+, CTS3529+, CTS3654+, CTS4002+, CTS4039+, CTS4088+, CTS410+, CTS4368+, CTS4437+, CTS4848+, CTS4982+, CTS5044+, CTS5375+, CTS5650+, CTS5727+, CTS5884+, CTS5908+, CTS5966+, CTS6096+, CTS6265+, CTS674+, CTS6932+, CTS7175+, CTS7213+, CTS7218+, CTS7329+, CTS7831+, CTS8239+, CTS8333+, CTS8345+, CTS8420+, CTS8444+, CTS8486+, CTS88+, CTS8876+, CTS8959+, CTS9264+, CTS9349+, CTS9380+, F1209+, F1329+, F1704+, F1714+, F1753+, F1767+, F2048+, F2142+, F2155+, F2587+, F2688+, F2837+, F2985+, F3111+, F3136+, F3145+, F3335+, F3368+, F3402+, F3556+, F3692+, F4188+, F719+, FGC12073+, FGC12077+, FGC12078+, FGC12079+, FGC12080+, FGC12081+, FGC12082+, FGC12084+, FGC12085+, FGC12086+, FGC12087+, FGC12088+, FGC12090+, FGC12091+, FGC12092+, FGC12094+, FGC12096+, FGC17059+, FGC20464+, FGC30450+, FGC30466+, FGC5795+, FGC7057+, FGC7058+, FGC7062+, FGC7064+, FGC7065+, FGC7066+, FGC7067+, FGC7068+, FGC7073+, FGC7074+, FGC7076+, FGC7077+, FGC7079+, FGC7084+, FGC7115+, FGC8108+, FGC8111+, FGC8115+, FGC8118+, FGC8120+, FGC8121+, FGC8122+, FGC8449+, L1090+, L132+, L136+, L15+, L16+, L178+, L350+, L403+, L41+, L460+, L468+, L470+, L498+, L578+, L621+, L68+, L748+, L751+, L755+, L756+, L758+, L772+, M10436+, M12051+, M168+, M213+, M235+, M258+, M294+, M299+, M42+, M423+, M89+, M94+, P123+, P124+, P125+, P126+, P127+, P129+, P130+, P133+, P134+, P135+, P136+, P138+, P139+, P14+, P140+, P141+, P143+, P145+, P146+, P148+, P149+, P151+, P157+, P158+, P159+, P160+, P161+, P163+, P166+, P187+, P212+, P215+, P316+, P37+, P38+, PAGES00026+, PAGES00081+, PF2591+, PF2608+, PF2611+, PF2615+, PF2745+, PF2747+, PF2748+, PF2749+, PF2770+, PF3562+, PF3574+, PF3611+, PF3626+, PF3638+, PF3639+, PF3640+, PF3641+, PF3644+, PF3651+, PF3657+, PF3658+, PF3660+, PF3664+, PF3666+, PF3667+, PF3669+, PF3671+, PF3672+, PF3675+, PF3686+, PF3690+, PF3780+, PF3800+, PF3801+, PF3802+, PF3804+, PF3809+, PF3812+, PF3814+, PF3815+, PF3820+, PF3822+, PF3827+, PF3830+, PF3831+, PF3836+, PF3837+, PF3849+, PF3966+, PF4058+, S10302+, S10659+, S11650+, S11840+, S12235+, S12569+, S15817+, S16428+, S17076+, S17250-, S17790+, S19015+, S19789+, S19848+, S20061+, S20602+, S20646+, S20938+, S23314+, S23503+, S23857+, S24427+, S26147+, S2691+, S2750+, S2770+, S5140+, S8201-, V168+, V186+, V189+, V205+, V221+, V241+, V250+, V52+, V9+, Y3114+, Y3115+, Y3116+, Y3118-, Y3771+, Y3772+, Y4460+, Y4922+, Y7544+, Y8776+, YP194+, YP217+, YSC0000227+, YSC0000256+, YSC0000272+, YSC0000281+, Z17855-, Z2065+, Z2594+, Z2601+, Z2603+, Z27243+
Jun-2018: And this is only 315 SNPs (in Jan-2018 it was 296) shown on “Test Taken” page, and it’s the same quantity in downloaded CSV file of SNPs. I have a spreadsheet, where I update every change:
And I see, that since Dec-2017 till Jan-2018, these were newly added as positive for me:
- FGC12077 (yfull: alt. YP193 on the level of CTS10228)
- FGC12080 (yfull: alt. Y3105 on the level of CTS10228)
- FGC12091 (yfull: not on tree, but admin page shows I’m G+)
- FGC12092 (yfull: alt. YP224 child under I-CTS10936)
- FGC12094 (yfull: not on tree, but admin page shows I’m T+)
- FGC7062 (yfull: alt. S9236 – child of I-Y3104)
- FGC7076 (yfull: not added on tree, but I’m hg38 pos. 20278231 in raw data shows I’m G+)
- FGC7115 (yfull: not on tree, but admin page shows I’m A+)
- FGC7079 A+ (yfull: alt. Y3999, on M423 level)
- CTS10194, CTS10247, CTS12003, CTS1600, CTS1799, CTS2159, CTS2257, CTS3529, CTS6096, CTS8444, CTS8959, CTS9380, FGC12073, FGC7079, PF3690, PF3830, PF3831. According YFULL all are on I2 level.
Looking to downloaded CSV file with Big Y data and filtering by “Derived”:”Yes(+)” and “On Tree”:”Yes” I see 723 positive (known) SNPs for me.
Main yDNA page now looks for me different as before (Sep-2018) (but hope it will be changed soon with Y128456+):
Since Feb-08-2018, I check all BigY updates and SNPs added by FTDNA, on draft tree and I’m negative to it.
- On Big Y results – “Unnamed Variants” tab, using position search doesn’t give me results.
- So I exported CSV file and information about positions is there.
- I also exported VCF, which I then uploaded to YFULL, and all information confirmed.
- I also asked Bernie Cullen on FDTNA group page, and it’s also confirmed.
- And I also double check the SNP or position on YFULL service.
On YDNA certificate it still shows the same (with new SNP added, but the same as for Dec-2017 and Sep-2018):
My full SNPs chain
I hope, it’s correct to make an assumption (I also based on YFULL order results, but still not sure):
- YP217+ means I’m FGC12076+
- FGC12085+ means I’m Y3120+
- S20602+ means I’m YP196+ (confirmed by Bernie Cullen)
- and so on …
Taking this into account, and previously discovered info, here is my updated SNP chain:
I2a-P37+ => M423+=> L621+ =>
- CTS10228+ [YP217+/FGC12076+ | YP193+/FGC12077+]
- S17250- [YP204-, V3022-]
- [Y3120+/FGC12085+ | S20602+/YP196+ | Y3116+]
- Y70430-, Y73542-, BY42256-
- SK1241-, SK1242-
- B57 T+ (yseq only, yfull says “no call position”, because VCF file is from FTDNA, and there is no B57 at all. BAM file doesn’t show as result. hg38 position 14949291.)
- Y91535- (according YFULL, based on Jun-2018 info from FTDNA/i2a blog)
- BY37524- (according YFULL)
- Y128456+, FGC63213+, Y128937+, BY51714+ (Sep-22-2018)
- Y3106? (not sure, BAM file doesn’t show as result, yfull “no call position”. hg38 position 5558221.)
- BY49264- (according YFULL, based on Jun-2018 info from FTDNA/i2a blog)
- Nov-14-2017. Zdenko Markowic
- “There are already three Big Y test results and one in progress for which Y4460 is the most downstream SNP.”
- Nov-29-2017. Bernie Cullen.
- Nov/Dec received Big Y results.
- Dec-21-2017, L621 Draft PDF updated on i2aproject.blogspot.com
- Jan-04-2018, Yfull.com updated to 6.01 version. No changes under Y4460.
- Jan-13-2018, YFULL started to receive VCF files for partial analysis. And it costs 49$ with later ability to upgrade when BAM files received from FTDNA. Nice …
- Feb-07-2018, new 9 SNPs appeared under Y4460. I’m negative to all.
- Feb-08-2018, I’ve been added to the draft tree (on B57 level – kit # 344010, and 280340 is my Big Y match Mr. Peter Szamosközi, whose ancestry is from Hungary).
- Mar-02-2018, received new SNP FGC7079+ from SNPs on BigY page. It’s M423 level, in aprticular Y3999, acording to ybrowse. Also tree was updated.
- Apr-2018 YFULL v6.02 out.
- Apr-2018, FTDNA:
Bernie Cullen: A Big Y was completed on February 6, 2018 for kit 454841. He lives in Sweden and he has traced his paternal ancestors to the 1600s, also in Sweden. According to his Y111 test, he belongs to the Dinaric-North cluster. His Big Y found that he belongs to the major I-Y4460 branch. In addition, he shares 11 variants/SNPs with a previous Big Y for kit 497085 who also has Swedish ancestry. FTDNA has named this new branch I-Y88617 and it’s shown on the FTDNA haplotree. Kit 454841 has four variants that haven’t been found in any previous Big Y, one of these is in a repeat region. Kit 497085 has tested only 37 markers, and he is a genetic distance 3 from kit 454841.
- May-2018, Received BAM file. Uploaded to YFULL service. Not much results from them.
- Jun-2018 i2aproject.blogspot.com: “update shows a 6th branch, another I-S20602* man who has ancestry from Germany. He doesn’t share any variants below S10602 with the Polish-ancestry man, or with any of the other 4 branches.Until recently, A2512, Y18331 and Y18332 were considered to be equivalent SNPs. But according to a recent Big Y, a man with Greek paternal ancestry is Y18331+ but A2512-. His result for Y18332 is currently unknown. So now I-Y18331 is one of the 6 basic branches of I-S20602, and I-A2512 is a subbranch of I-Y18331.“
- Jun-30-2018, Now I see, that B57/Y3106 becomes separate branch, with it’s own specific. Unfortunately, BigY doesn’t give me much results from BAM file neither on FTDNA page nor on YFULL page.
- Sep-2018, Bernie Cullen from FTDNA I2a group:
“Mr Garniuk is CTS10228+ YP196+/S20602+ Y4460+ (assumed B57+) Y3118+. Note: B57 is not typically reported in Big Y results, but other Y3118+ men have B57+ results (Estonian Biocentre samples). We can also assume that Mr Garniuk has Y3106+ results because other Y3118+ men are Y3106+. It’s possible that Mr Garniuk’s VCF file or BAM file has information about Y3106 and maybe B57″
- Sep-22-2018, Zdenko Markovic via email:
“We received Daujotas’ Big Y-500 results. He is your Big Y match, you share at least 5 variants/SNPs, new haplogroup below I-Y4460 is identified. I call your haplogroup I-Y128456, maybe FTDNA and YFull choose another SNP to represent your haplogroup. You are now in a separate section in the I-P37 haplogroup project.”
“You and Daujotas have quite different haplotypes. You are not close STR matches and you do not share any STR match. Despite you share five variants, both of you still have many private variants. That means your lines split many years ago.”
And then Bernie Cullen published on i2aproject blog:
“This update shows a major new branch called I-Y128456, the two known members are from Lithuania and Ukraine.”
- Mar-30-2019, Ordered Big Y-700 upgrade. Big Y–700 at a glance:
- Expanded NGS targeting of genealogically useful Y-chromosome regions
- Revamped NGS chemistry that provides more uniform coverage within a much broader and targeted region of the Y
- More consistent coverage improves comparison between any two results and allows more of the identified SNPs to be placed on the tree
- Increased number of STR markers provides more data points on paternal lineages and can help identify family-specific variants
- http://ultimatefamilyhistorians.blogspot.co.uk/2017/10/what-are-benefits-of-yfull.html – Oct-2017
- https://ultimatefamilyhistorians.blogspot.com/2017/12/the-big-y-could-be-best-dna-test-ever.html – Dec-2017
- Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool 
- Standing at the Gateway to Europe – The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers 
- Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data